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Fiber Cable

SM & MM

Fiber types are represented by fractions denoting the core size/cladding size.

All fiber has the same cladding diameter (125 µm).

But older fiber styles used a 100/140 fiber size (IBM) (Incompatible with most connectors.)

 

Multimode Fiber Types

 

Physical Differences

Human hair typically 70 - 75 µm

Dust particles average 3 - 9µm

 

WHY Fiber ???

  • Immunity to electrical interference.
  • Safe - no electrical current flows. Completely electrically isolated.
  • Secure - difficult to tap into. Tap Resistant
  • Smaller - less “bulky” than copper cables.
  • Lighter weight than copper cable.
  • Higher information carrying capacity.
  • Longer cabling runs (uses less active equipments).
  • NO grounding required.
  • NO flame or spark hazards.

 

Advantages & Disadvantages of Fiber

ADVANTAGES

  • HIGH SPEED: Networks on OFC operates at high speeds.
  • BANDWIDTH : Large Carrying capacity.
  • DISTANCE: Transmit signals to a longer distances without repeating
  • EMI CONSIDERATIONS: Greater resistance to electromagnetic noise such as radios, motors, nearby cables. Also immune to RFI, moisture & corrosion.
  • LOW POWER: Low power transmitters can be used because signals in optical fiber degrade less.
  • HIGH SECURITY: Signals in a fiber cannot be tapped easily.

DISADVANTAGES

  • COST: The terminating equipments are costlier as compared to copper equipments.
  • FRAGILITY: Fiber is fragile.
  • INSTALLTION/MAINTAINANCE: Any roughness or cracking in the core of an optical cable diffuses light and alters the signal.

 

 

Fiber vs. Copper

FIBER VERSUS COPPER

  • A single copper pair is capable of carrying 6 phone calls.
  • A single-strand fiber could carry all the telephone conversations in small country at peak hour.
  • The biggest advantage of optical fiber is the fact it is the most cost effective means of transporting information.
  • Fiber can transport more information to longer distances in less time than any other communications medium, as this photo from the late 1970s illustrates so well.

 

Different Types of Fiber Cables

Outdoor Direct Burial Armored Cables.

Outdoor Duct Unarmored Cables.

Indoor Premise Distribution Cables.

 

Unitube

The reinforced optical fiber cable of Unitube structure Comprises a protective tube for protecting optical fibers and reinforcing elements.

With an outer sheath around said protective tube.

In the cable the protective tube is of Corrugated Tubular structure.

Application: Long Distance transmission cable.

 

Loose Tube Fiber

 

Data Transmission Wavelengths

 


Invisible – Ultra-Violet (Low band)

Visible – 400 to700 nm

Invisible – Infrared(High band)

Multimode – 850nm and 1300nm

Singlemode – 1310nm and 1550nm

 

Multimode- Many modes or light rays

Core Sizes - 50 µm, 62.5 µm

  • Can be used with LED or laser light sources.
  • Currently, both core sizes can accommodate GbE.
  • Legacy 62.5 fiber has problems with VCSEL transmissions, and may fail to support Gigabit transmission.
  • The old graded index was optimized for LED’s, not Lasers.
  • According to TIA 568-A, MM fiber to the desk may be used in a compliant system.
  • When optical fiber is used in the horizontal distribution, a minimum of two strands per work area must be run. 1 for transmit, 1 to receive.

Multimode Distance Limitations
Data - 2,000 meters (For 100Base speeds)

 

Singlemode-One mode of light (laser)

  • Speeds up to 500Tbps.
  • Attenuation only limiting factor.
  • Fiber is step index glass, only one density in the core.
  • More susceptible to micro/macro bend induced losses.
  • Core alignment (splices, couplers) critical to system performance.

 

Fiber Connectivity Schematic

 

 

Typical Fiber Connectivity....BoM

 
 

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